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SURAHS AHZAAB, SABA AND FAATIR TILL AYAT 21 OF SURAH YASEEN
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SURAH 33: SURAH AHZAAB
A SUMMARY OF THE SURAH
The specific intent of this Surah is to” negate the following three false notions that the Mushrikeen entertained:
* The fundamental belief that the intercession of their gods can change Allaah’s decision on the Day of Judgement.
* The notion that a person’s wife is regarded as his mother after “Zihaar,” and that she cannot become his wife even after offering the compensation for “Zihaar.”
* The notion that the wife of one’s adopted son is like the wife of one’s real son. Therefore, they believed that a woman cannot marry her husband’s adoptive father after being divorced or widowed. Rasulullaah s demonstrated this when he married Zaynab bint Jahash r who was the divorced wife of his adopted son.
Although negation of the first belief receives priority, the second two notions are dispelled by way of example. In other words, Allaah impresses upon man that, by his own view, just as his wife cannot be regarded as his mother, his gods cannot overrule Allaah’s decree because they believe so. Similarly, just as one’s adopted son cannot become one’s real son because he wants him to, one’s gods also cannot be effective intercessors in Allaah’s court merely because s/he desires this.
Surah Ahzaab contains many laws of guidance, some addressed to Rasulullaah (SAW), others to the Muslim public, and others to the wives of Rasulullaah s. Those addressed to Rasulullaah s are as follows:
Allaah issues the first instruction to Rasulullaah (SAW), by telling him not to compromise on the truth. He was to propagate the truth under all circumstances, even if the Mushrikeen and Munaafiqeen were to oppose him [verse 7].
Rasulullaah (SAW) is instructed to tell his wives that he is prepared to separate from them if they desire the glamour of this world. However, if they desire Allaah, His Rasool s, and to eradicate customs of ignorance, they will receive a tremendous reward from Allaah [verse 28].
Rasulullaah (SAW) is commanded to marry his cousin Zaynab bint Jahash r. [Verse 37].
In verse 38, Rasulullaah (SAW) is told not to feel any constraint in his heart with regard to Allaah’s decrees. He is exhorted to fear Allaah Only and not to fear the reproach of others. Such was the attitude of all the Ambiyaa (AS).
Allaah then tells Rasulullaah (SAW) “O Nabi s! We have certainly sent you as a witness, a carrier of good news, a warner and as a caller to Allaah by His command and an illuminating lantern” [verses 45, 46]. It was therefore his duty to dispel ignorant traditions, and announce to the world that marriage to one’s adopted son’s wife is permissible.
In verse 50, Allah describes all the women whom Rasulullaah (SAW) was permitted to marry.
Verse 58 commands Rasulullaah (SAW) to enjoin his wives, daughters, and all the Muslim women to cover themselves completely when leaving their homes for any reason. This will preserve their chastity and safeguard them from the slander of mischief-makers.
The laws of guidance addressed to the Muslim public are as follows:
The first law issued to the Muslims is contained in verse 6, where Allaah instructs the Muslims to lend their support to Rasulullaah s in the face of opposition from the Mushrikeen and Munaafiqeen after he dispelled their traditions. They are told that they should even sacrifice their very lives for Rasulullaah (SAW)’s honour and that they should treat his wives as their mothers.
Allaah then passes the second command to the Muslims in verse 9, where He exhorts the Mu’mineen not to lose courage, and to remain with Rasulullaah s because Allaah would assist them despite their small numbers, like He did on numerous occasions. By way of example, Allaah then cites the incident of the battle of Ahzaab. The details of this battle are mentioned from verse 9, and terminate at the end of verse 27.
The third law issued to the Muslims is contained in verse 35, where every Muslim man and woman are enjoined to obey Allaah and Rasulullaah (SAW)
The fourth law directed at the Muslims is mentioned in verse 40, where Allaah tells them that Rasulullaah s had no real sons. There was therefore no harm in him marrying the ex-wife of his adopted son.
The fifth law to guide the Muslims is expressed from verse 41, where Allaah tells the Mu’mineen that they should remember Allaah in abundance, glorify Him and praise Him excessively, morning and evening.
The sixth law directed to the Mu’mineen is mentioned in verse 49, where Allaah instructs the Mu’mineen that their wives need not spend the ‘Iddah’ if her husband divorces her before the marriage is consummated
The eighth law applicable to the Mu’mineen is to send salutations and to make supplications for special mercy to be shown to Rasulullaah s because of the efforts that he made to eradicate traditions of ignorance despite vehement opposition from the Kuffaar and Munaafiqeen.
Thereafter, in verse 69, Allaah instructs the Muslims not to have any ill thoughts about Rasulullaah (SAW) and not to hurt his feelings by saying anything derogatory.
The guidance given to the wives of Rasulullaah (SAW) are as follows:
In verse 30, Allaah warns the wives of Rasulullaah s of double punishment if they were to say anything that may besmirch the honour of Rasulullaah (SAW). However, Allaah adds that those wives who stand by Rasulullaah (SAW) at all times and assist in eradicating the customs of the Period of Ignorance, shall receive double reward.
In verse 32, Allaah tells the wives of Rasulullaah s that they are not like other women, and should therefore not speak like others who said that Rasulullaah s does as he pleases. They should be firm and state in no uncertain terms that Rasulullaah s acted according to Allah’s command when he married the divorced wife of his adopted son. They are also instructed to keep aloof from customs of ignorance and to obey Rasulullaah (SAW) because Allaah wishes to cleanse them of all impurities.
SURAH 34: SURAH SABA
A SUMMARY OF THE SURAH
The fourth part of the Qur’aan commences with Surah Saba. The central theme of this part is the negation of anyone being able to alter Allaah’s decree by his own will.
There are therefore two central issues discussed in this part, viz.
(1) the fact that none can overrule Allaah’s decisions, and
(2) the fact that only Allaah is worthy of worship. Surah Saba discusses the first of these two issues while Surah Faatir discusses the fact that Only Allaah must be worshipped. The Surah asks people why do they worship others and treat them as Helpers?
The central theme of Surah Saba is the negation of the belief that others can influence Allaah’s decision by their intercession. This is supported by six proofs. Replies to four incorrect beliefs concerning the theme are also given in the Surah.
SURAH 35: SURAH FAATIR
A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE SURAH
This Surah primarily negates Shirk in tasarruf (division in duties). It emphasises that Only Allaah is the Master and Controller of the universe, and that Only He has knowledge of the unseen. Therefore, Only He must be called upon whenever one is in need.
The Surah presents twelve proofs to substantiate the above. Together with these, three verses explicitly state the message of the Surah. These are:
The first is verse 3.
The second is verse 13.
The third is verse 40.
SURAHS YASEEN, SAAFFAAT, AND SAAD TILL AYAT 31 OF SURAH ZUMAR
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SURAH 36: SURAH YAASEEN
A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE SURAH
The first eleven verses serve as the introduction to the Surah. In these verses, Allaah explains that the Qur’aan verifies the truthfulness of Rasulullaah s. However, because Allaah has sealed the hearts of many people because of their refusal to accept the truth, they cannot accept the fact.
Verse 12 warns people about the Aakhirah, after which verses 13 to 29 narrate the incident of the people of a certain village. They rejected Allaah’s apostles and even murdered a person who gave them good advice. Eventually they were destroyed by Allaah’s punishment, from which even the intercession of their gods could not save them.
The Surah contains five arguments to prove its central theme.
1. [verses 31, 32]. In this verse, Allaah mentions that He destroyed many disobedient nations before, the gods of whom could not assist them at all.
2. [verses 33 to 36]. In these verses Allaah explains that Only He can revive barren land, causing all types of fruit plantations to flourish on it. It is also only Him Who causes springs to gush forth from beneath the earth. The false gods of the Mushrikeen have no share in the creation of these things. Not even the angels, the Jinn or the Ambiyaa can accomplish any of these feats. Therefore, how can any other besides Allaah be regarded as a deity or an intercessor?
3. Verse 37 until verse 40 contain the third logical proof. Allaah controls the entire solar system, which has not altered in its perfect functioning to this day. If there existed a being whose intercession could effect any change to Allaah’s decisions, then this being would have certainly been able to effect some change in Allaah’s system.
4. Allaah presents the fourth logical proof from verse 41, terminating it only at the end of verse 44. In this proof, Allaah explains how He allows ships and other marine vessels to travel safely across the oceans. If He wished to sink any ship, no false god would be able to save the ship
5. Allaah presents the fifth logical proof in verse 71, in which He speaks of the animals that He has created for man for various purposes. While there are those animals that man can use to transport himself and his goods, there are those that he can slaughter to eat. Only Allaah has created these animals, and the false gods of the Mushrikeen had no part in this creation. Therefore, they cannot be regarded as deities, nor as effective intercessors.
In verse 77, Allaah speaks about the ingratitude of man, who, forgetting that Allaah created him from a drop of semen, chooses to contest the belief in Towheed.
Allaah proves the probability of Qiyaamah by explaining that it is indeed simple for the Being Who created man from nothing, to bring the same original matter back to life.
SURAH 37: SURAH SAAFFAAT
THOSE WHO STAND IN ROWS
A SUMMARY OF THE SURAH
The first five verses inform us that the angels are all subservient to Allaah, and they announce to the inhabitants of the earth that their Rabb is the One Allaah. There can be no other deity, nor any being that can alter Allaah’s decrees.
Thereafter, verses 6 to 10 explains how the Shayaateen are driven with fiery stars from the heavens when they attempt to eavesdrop on the discussions of the angels.
The first narrative concerning Nooh e is related from verse 75, and terminates at the end of verse 82. Allaah describes how He rescued Ibraheem e from the raging fire and how Ibraheem e was so obedient to Allaah that he was prepared to sacrifice his son upon Allaah’s command. These incidents prove that even great personalities like Nooh e and Ibraheem e cannot be deities and cannot alter Allaah’s decree.
The narrative of Moosa e and Haaroon e is also mentioned, making it clear that Allaah had rescued them both from hardships and oppression. Verses 123 to verse 132 concern Ilyaas (AS), whom Allaah saved from assassination and humiliation at the hands of his people.
The narrative of Loot e begins from verse 133 and ends with verse 138. Allaah rescued Loot e as well. It is again proven that people as great as Ilyaas (AS) and Loot (AS) were in need of Allaah’s assistance, and can therefore not alter Allaah’s decisions.
Yunus (AS)’s incident follows thereafter. From verse 139 to verse 148, Allaah mentions how Yunus (AS) called to Him for assistance, after which Allaah rescued him. Therefore, even he cannot be regarded as an intercessor to chance Allaah’s decision.
SURAH 38: SURAH SAAD
A SUMMARY OF THE SURAH
After an introduction, the Surah contains encouragement, warnings, reproaches, and objections. It presents seven arguments to prove that even those whom the Mushrikeen regarded to be powerful intercessors are dependent on Allaah and can therefore do nothing without Allaah’s command. The incidents of several Ambiyaa e are recounted, every one of them proving that even these illustrious souls were dependent on Allaah. The incidents mentioned are as follows:
The incident of Dawood (AS) is mentioned.
The incident of Sulaymaan (AS) is mentioned.
Then the incident of Ayyoob (AS).
Verse 45 speaks of Ibraheem e, Is’haaq (AS) and Ya’qoob (AS) who were always engaged in preparing themselves for the Aakhirah.
This proves that they also cannot be regarded as imposing intercessors before Allaah.
Verse 48 speaks about Ismaa’eel (AS), Yasa (AS) and Dhul Kifl (AS). By mentioning that they were all His slaves, Allaah drives home the point that they are all in need and subservient to Him. Therefore, they also cannot be regarded as deities or people whose intercession can override Allaah’s decree.
Allaah then declares that even Rasulullaah s who was the greatest of men is but a bondsman of Allaah, who had also suffered many trials and difficulties. This is expressed from verse 65 to 68.
Towards the end, the Surah describes the helplessness of the angels and the Jinn (with reference to their father Iblees).