QURBAANI IS WAAJIB ON A SAHIB-E-NISAAB
Qurbaani is compulsory upon a sahib-e-nisaab. The compulsion of Qurbaani is narrated in Sunan Ibn Majah,
عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : من كان له سعة ولم يضح فلا يقربن مصلانا . ابن ماجة ١̸٢٢٦
He who has the capacity and who does not perform Qurbaani, he should not come close to the Musallah.
It is quite apparent that a sahib-e-nisaab has the capacity. So, if two people in a house possess nisaab, then Qurbaani is compulsory upon both of them. If there are four, then it is compulsory upon four, and if there is one, then it will be compulsory upon this one person.
IF SADAQAH-E-FITR IS WAAJIB THEN QURBAANI TOO IS WAAJIB
Qurbaani is compulsory upon the one whom upon Sadaqatul fitr is compulsory. If he does not have enough wealth that makes Sadaqatul fitr compulsory, then Qurbaani is not compulsory upon him. If he does Qurbaani, then he will receive the reward of it.
QURBAANI WILL NOT BE FULFILLED BY GIVING SADAQAH
It is necessary for the man or woman upon whom Qurbaani is compulsory to make the Qubaani by slaughtering the animal during the three days of Qurbaani. The responsibility of Qurbaani will not be fulfilled by giving the value in charity or by doing some other good deed. A person will get the reward of giving charity but he will get the sin of not performing the Qurbaani.
The meaning of actual or basic necessity is that need that relates to a person’s life or honour, i.e. if it is not met, then a person’s life or honour is in danger. For example, food, drink, clothing, shelter etc. As for those who are craftsmen, their tools also fall under actual necessity. However, huge pots, massive beds, pavilions, radios, tape recorders, television sets and VCR sets are not included as actual or basic necessities. If the value of these items reach the nisaab amount, then Qurbaani will be compulsory upon the owner of them.
It should be clear that television sets and VCR sets are instruments of sin; it is not permissible to keep or look at them.
FOR A STUDENT TO MAKE NAFL QURBAANI
It is better for a student of Deen to buy books of Deen rather than performing Nafl Qurbaani.
QURBAANI IS WAAJIB ON WOMEN
If a woman is understanding, mature, a resident and has nisaab, or she has possessions that are over and above her basic necessities that equal nisaab, then Qurbaani is compulsory upon her.
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN QURBAANI AND SADAQAH
From the story of Hadhrat Ibraaheem – the friend of Allaah – (RA) we learn that the original purpose of Qurbaani is to present an offering of a life. Consequently, the enthusiasm for giving one’s life and for giving others preference will be created. This is the soul of Qurbaani. This soul cannot be achieved by giving charity. This is because the soul of Qurbaani is giving a life and the soul of Sadaqah is giving wealth.
We also learn that Qurbaani is different from Sadaqah from the fact that there is no specific day for Sadaqah but there is a special day stipulated for Qurbaani. Its name has been kept ‘Yaum un Nahr’ and ‘Eid ul Adha’.
TO GIVE THE MEAT OF QURBAANI IN EXCHANGE FOR SOMETHING
It is not permissible to give the Qurbaani meat in exchange for something besides food, nor is it permissible to sell it or give it to the butcher or worker. If a person has done so, then he should give the value of it in charity.
MUSTAHAB ACTIONS FOR THE PERSON MAKING QURBAANI
…..It is Mustahab for the person who intends making Qurbaani not to clean off any hair or nails from the beginning of Dhul Hijjah until he slaughters his animal. This is because the person performing Qurbaani is performing it in exchange of his life and every part of the Qurbaani animal is in lieu of every part of his body. There is not a part of a person’s body where mercy does not descend. Then it is like being deprived of the mercy of Qurbaani. It is for this reason that Rasulullaah (SAW) gave this command. However, it will be necessary for a person to clip his nails and trim his hair if the period has exceeded forty days since the time he last did so.
UPON WHOM IS QURBAANI COMPULSORY?
…..Qurbaani is compulsory upon every understanding, mature, resident Muslim male and female who owns nisaab or owns extra items (over and above their need) which equals the nisaab amount, i.e. they own an amount that equals the gold and silver nisaab amount, or they possess homes or properties besides the one they live in or they have extra household items that equal the nisaab amount or they have trading stock, shares etc. Then one share of Qurbaani is necessary for them to do.
…..It is not a condition for a year to pass over the nisaab amount or the items that are over and above ones needs. It is also not a condition for the goods to be trading stock. If a person becomes the owner of it before sunset of the 12th of Dhul Hijjah, then Qurbaani is compulsory upon him/her.
…..From the three days of Qurbaani, if a person becomes the owner of nisaab even on the last day, or he becomes the owner of goods that are over and above his needs, then Qurbaani becomes compulsory upon him.
…..If a person has a home other than the one he lives in, whether it is for trade or not, or he has a flat besides the one he lives in, he has a vehicle other than what he needs, then this person is a saahib-e-nisaab with regards to Qurbaani. Qurbaani is compulsory upon him.
…..If a person possesses trading stock – of any kind – that equals the nisaab amount, then Qurbaani becomes compulsory upon him.
QURBAANI IS WAAJIB (COMPULSORY)
Rasulullaah (SAW) stayed in Madinah Munawwarah for ten years after Hijrah. He performed Qurbaani every year with punctuality.
From this we learn that Qurbaani was not specific to Makkah Mu’azzamah, but it is compulsory upon the resident of every city that has the ability. Rasulullaah (SAW) used to emphasize it. It is for this reason that majority of the scholars say that it is waajib (compulsory).
ADAA QURBAANI TOGETHER WITH QADHA QURBAANI
If one partner from the seven made the intention for the Qurbaani of the previous year, then the Qurbaani of all the partners will be valid. However, an optional Qurbaani will be done for the one who made the intention for Qadhaa, the Qadhaa will not be considered. It will be necessary to give all the meat of the animal in charity and it will be necessary to give a medium sized goat in charity in lieu of the Qadhaa Qurbaani.
HOW MANY QURBAANI ARE WAAJIB?
One Qurbaani is compulsory upon the sahib-e-nisaab. It does not matter how wealthy he is or how much nisaab he owns. It is necessary for one person to do one Qurbaani. It could be a male or female goat, a male or female sheep or he could slaughter a bull or cow or a share in a camel, cow or bull. (Both instances will be permissible)
It is Mustahab to give the rope of the animal in charity. If a person sold it, then it is compulsory to give the value in charity. If a person wants to use it, then he can and he is also permitted to give it as a gift if he wants to.