INFORMATION ON MARTYS
DEFINITIONS, TYPES, LAWS AND EXAMPLES
By: Hadhrat Mufti A.H. Elias (May Allaah protect him)
Meaning: One upon whom testimony is given. For Jannat has been made visible for the martyrs. i.e. Jannat testifies for the martyr. Or due to the lofty rank of the martyr Malaikh are present at the time of death or witness for the martyr is alive and is present in the Court of Allaah.
Type 1: Perfect Martyr: In relationship to this world and the Akhiraat called ‘Shaheed-e-Fiqhi’ and also as per jurisprudence. Not like general deceased in Kafn / Dafn and different in the Akhiraat due to reward compared to others.
Definition of Martys in Shariat:
Any responsible Muslim who has been killed without sin due to oppression with an instrument like a sword, arrow etc and due upon this death was no blood wit money but Qisas or some non-believer in war or dacoit was the cause of death without an instrument and the one killed did not benefit from the world. No Ghusl for such a person. Will be buried with the blood.
Type 2: Imperfect Martyr: Called ‘Shadeed Akhiraat’ or ‘Shadeed Thawaab’. Will have normal burial procedure but will get reward like a martyr in the Akhiraat.
Type 3: Worldly Martyr: ‘Shadeed Dunya’. Died because of seeking worldly benefit, wealth, glory, not for upliftment of the Kalimah, so Muslims will not give Ghusl to such but in the Akhiraat will not be given the reward of a Martyr.
Law for Perfect Martyr:
1) No ghusl. No removal of blood.
2) Buried with blood soiled clothing. (see Pg554 U.F. Vol. 2 for more info.)
Pre-Condition for Perfect Martyr:
1) To be Muslim.
2) Responsible, sane, mature.
3) Free from major impurities.
4) Killed for no Shaari sin.
5) Killed by those enraged in war with, rebellious ones, dacoits.
6) Killed unjustly by a Muslim or ‘Zimmi’.
7) Found in the battlefield with signs of wounds.
8) Did not benefit from the world after being wounded e.g. eating, drinking, sleeping etc.
Details of above Pg 554/5/6/7/8/9 U.F. Vol. 2
Examples of Imperfect Martyr:
As listed by Imaam Jalaludeen Suyuti (A.R.) etc;
1) Death due to stomach ailment like due to thirst or diarrhoea.
3) Upon whom a wall fell.
4) Death due to ailment that starts from the chest and wounds when the end rubs causing much pain.
5) Death due to ailment that results in blood coming out of the mouth and body changes colour.
6) Death on journey.
7) Death due to epilepsy.
8) Death due to fear.
9) Death due to protection of Imaan, wealth, life, family or any right.
10) Death due to been killed unjustly.
11) Death due to permissible love.
12) Death due to leprosy or its like.
13) Death due to been eaten by a carnivorous animal.
14) Death by an oppressive king or after been jailed by him and died therein or hid away from him and died in hiding.
15) Death due to been smitten or bitten by a poisonous animal/insect e.g. snake.
16) Death whilst seeking Ilm of Deen, to be engaged in either compilation, authorship, teaching or studying. Total unilateral deep involvement is not meant.
17) Death of the Muezzin who called to earn reward not earning wages. (Insects do not fall in the grave m.z).
18) Death of the truthfull businessman.
19) Death of the one who strives for his family, establishing, the order of Allaah on them and feeds them with ‘halaal’.
20) Death of the one who died due to vomiting whilst on a sea journey.
21) Death of the one who reads ‘Allahuma barik li fil maut wa fimaa badal maut’ 25 times and then dies on his bed will get the reward of a Martyr.
22) Death of the one who performs ‘Chast’ Salaat and fasts every month three days and does not miss witr Salaat whether in journey or at home.
23) Death of one who acts on the Sunnat when the Ummat is under ‘Fasaad’ – trial- tribulation.
24) Death of one who reads 40 times ‘Laailaha illaha illa antha subhanaka Inni kuntu meenus zaalimeen ‘ and dies in that ailment and if that person recovers then will be forgiven.
25) Death of one who recites Surah Yaseen every night.
26) Death of one who reads ‘A’oozubillaah sameul min sataan il Rajeem’ 3 times in the morning and last 3 Ayaats of Surah Hashr then Allaah Ta’ala appoints 70,000 Maalikh to seek forgiveness on behalf of the reciter till the evening and if one dies on that one will die a amartyr and on recitation of the above the same applies till morning.
27) Death of one who recites a hundred Durood upon Nabi (S.A.W).
28) Death of one who questions with a sincere heart to be slain in Allaah’s way. (seek, intends).
29) Death on Jumuah – after sunset of Thursday till sunset of Friday.
30) Death of one who guards the borders against the Kuffaar.
31) Death of one who fell from a conveyance and dies.
32) Death of one who died due to epidemic/plague in a manner that during the period stayed with patience and Niyaat of reward, then even one died of another cause will be a martyr provided it was during the time of plague and the one who flees from the plague is similar to the one fleeing from Jihaad.
33) Death by burning.
34) Death of a woman dying to due to child birth (delivery), irrespective of whether at the time of delivery or after, before expiry of Nifaaz.
35) Death of a virgin.
36) Death of one who spent the night in the state of purity.
37) Death of one who led a life free of harness (extremist) and spent life in a gentle manner.
Pg559/60 Ummadatul Fiqh Volume 2
From Pg 38/9/40 Volume 2 (Mazhair Haqq Jadeed)
2) From pregnancy to child birth.
3) Until baby leaves suckling.
4) By falling in a ditch.
5) Whilst in Jihaad one dies.
6) Dies in jail by an oppressive ruler.
7) Dies after beating.
8) Dies due to proclamation of Islaam/ Tauheed (6/7/8 – Hadhrat Ali (R.A.)
9) Dies due to speaking in front of the oppressive ruler,
10) And orders him to do good,
11) And forbids him from bad and is killed for (9) or (10) or (11) (9/10/11 – Hadhrat Anas (R.A.)
12) Dies due to being trampled by a horse or camel – (Hadhrat Moosa Asharee (R.A.)
13) That female who protected her honour, dignity, chastity patiently and held Jihaad as necessary. (Hadhrat Ibn Masood (R.A.)
14) Attendance of Ilmi gathering (For the pleasure of Allaah).
15) One who takes food (grain) to the Muslims.
16) One dies due to water getting stuck in the throat.
17) One who died rolling in one’s own blood.
18) One who recites the last 3 Aayaats of Surah Hashr and sleeps and dies that night, dies a Martyr.
19) One who dies during Hajj.
20) One who dies during Umrah.
21) One who dies in Ramadhaan.
22) One who dies in Baitul Muqaddis.
23) One who dies in Makkah.
24) One who dies in Madinah.
25) One who dies whilst making ‘Sabr’ when immersed in some calamity or severe difficulty.
26) Demise at the age of 90.
27) Dying whilst affected by Jinn.
28) Dying whilst parents are happy with you.
29) Pious wife dies whilst husband is happy with her.
30) A just Ruler.
31) A Shaari Qazi who always decided on truth and justice.
32) One who spoke a good word to a Muslim.
33) One who aided in anyway a Muslim.
Benefits of Dying a Martyr
1) No pangs of agony at the time of death.
2) No questioning in the grave.
3) Intercede for seventy on the Day of Qiyamaat.
4) No accountability on the Day of Qiyamaat.
5) Their souls will be respected and honoured in Jannat.
(From ‘Shadaat Ki Aqsaam wa Akhaam’ by Moulana Muhammad Iqbal Qureshi.)
Basically, there are two types of Martyrs. One ‘Haqeeqi’, the other is ‘Hukmi’. One the true, real, perfect martyr. The other coming under the order of ‘Haqeeqi’. The ‘Haqeeqi’ is the original. The ‘Hukmi’ is the substitute. Know also that there can be no substitute for the substitute.
May Allaah Jalla Majdahu make us from amongst the Martyrs to be buried in Madinah-tul-Munawarrah.
– If dies immediately then no Ghusl.